The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein 1st ed. American Journal of Science. Reviews of Modern Physics. Introduction to Special Relativity 2nd ed. Journal of the Optical Society of America. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original PDF on 17 February Retrieved 14 April The Special and General Theory. Theoretical Phenomenology Computational Experimental Applied. Electrostatics Magnetostatics Plasma physics.
Atomic physics Molecular physics Optics Photonics Quantum optics. Accelerator Astroparticle Nuclear Quantum chromodynamics. Quantum electrodynamics Quantum field theory Quantum gravity. Past history deep time Present Future Futures studies Far future in religion Far future in science fiction and popular culture Timeline of the far future Eternity Eternity of the world.
Time zone Six-hour clock hour clock hour clock Daylight saving time Solar time Sidereal time Metric time Decimal time Hexadecimal time. Horology History of timekeeping devices Main types astrarium atomic quantum hourglass marine sundial sundial markup schema watch mechanical stopwatch water-based Cuckoo clock Digital clock Grandfather clock. Geological time age chron eon epoch era period Geochronology Geological history of Earth.
Chronological dating Chronobiology Circadian rhythms Dating methodologies in archaeology Time geography. Time measurement and standards. Chronometry Orders of magnitude Metrology. Ephemeris time Greenwich Mean Time Prime meridian. Absolute space and time Spacetime Chronon Continuous signal Coordinate time Cosmological decade Discrete time and continuous time Planck time Proper time Theory of relativity Time dilation Gravitational time dilation Time domain Time translation symmetry T-symmetry.
Chronological dating Geologic time scale International Commission on Stratigraphy. Galactic year Nuclear timescale Precession Sidereal time. Principle of relativity Galilean relativity Galilean transformation Special relativity Doubly special relativity. Time dilation Mass—energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas precession Ladder paradox Twin paradox. Light cone World line Minkowski diagram Biquaternions Minkowski space.
Equivalence principle Riemannian geometry Penrose diagram Geodesics Mach's principle. Black hole Event horizon Singularity Two-body problem Gravitational waves: Brans—Dicke theory Kaluza—Klein Quantum gravity. Retrieved from " https: Theory of relativity Theoretical physics Theories by Albert Einstein.
The primary objective of the present paper is to close this gap. In particular, it has been possible to obtain the equations of the gravitational field in a purely covariance-theoretical manner section D.
I also tried to give simple derivations of the basic laws of absolute differential calculus — in part, they are probably new ones section B — in order to allow the reader to get a complete grasp of the theory without having to read other, purely mathematical tracts. As an illustration of the mathematical methods, I derived the Eulerian equations of hydrodynamics and the field equations of the electrodynamics of moving bodies section C.
The most elementary features of the present theory are also derived inasfar as they are characteristic of a Newtonian static gravitational field curvature of light rays, shift of spectral lines. While Einstein certainly did have help from Grossman and others, to a large extent the theory of general relativity was all his own. It stands in stark contrast to quantum mechanics or almost all modern theories, which have grown up through the collaborative effort of many smart people.
What is the possibility that if this patent worker, though a PhD in physics, posted on this blog today, his revolutionary theories would receive any acceptance from the current physics community. How is today different than it was then? Yet in the story surrounding the Higgs boson Higgs complained of the same problem. I was a student of John Wheeler at Princeton,. At that time John Stachel of Yale was editing the Einstein papers, but later he moved on.
Helen told me an interesting story about the special relativity manuscript. So Helen read the paper to A. E, who wrote it pout by hand, all the while remarking that he could have said things better! As far as Einstein being on his own in GR, Dirac expressed the opinion in a lecture I heard, that whilst special relativity was in the works and would have come up sooner or later, GR might have been undiscovered for years! In fact, many journals take a link to arxiv instead of the manuscript itself.
So, if you have a new revolutionary theory, it is quite easy to let the world know. The downside is that there is a lot of noise being posted as preprints all the time, and it is sometimes hard to wade through. Certainly the incompatibility of Special Relativity and Newtonian Gravity was rather obvious, and Riemann had tried to explain gravity using spatial curvature long before Einstein, though with a wrong sign for time in the metric.
Einstein prodded Hilbert, who, in turn, got Emmy Noether to derive her famous theorem about conservation laws. How this would have unfolded without Einstein is not at all obvious. Of course, given that the amount of effort being currently spent in this direction is several orders of magnitude larger than what was going on back then, this hypothetical Einstein 2. So maybe years is a reasonable estimate for the next breakthrough. This may possibly relate as well to the question of Einstein vs.
Hilbert in the discovery of General Relativity. Bob, that Corry, Renn, and Stachel paper is very misleading because it neglects to mention that the Hilbert manuscript had a section removed. At any rate, Hilbert had the Lagrangian formulation of the field equations in , and Einstein did not. And maybe it was only because of it that he was able to do what he achieved.
And thanks to the Internet such research into these biographical details now becomes much easier than for those who had to rely on libraries and library networks, taking weeks and months to get a tome and then having to excerpt it and return it swiftly.
This is good stuff. Hopefully people will now read this original material and note the differences between what Einstein said and what people say he said. For example, he spoke repeatedly about the speed of light varying with gravitational potential.
Newtonian mechanics mathematically follows from special relativity at small velocities compared to the speed of light — thus Newtonian mechanics can be considered as a special relativity of slow moving bodies. See classical mechanics for a more detailed discussion. Several experiments predating Einstein's paper are now interpreted as evidence for relativity. Of these it is known Einstein was aware of the Fizeau experiment before ,  and historians have concluded that Einstein was at least aware of the Michelson—Morley experiment as early as despite claims he made in his later years that it played no role in his development of the theory.
Particle accelerators routinely accelerate and measure the properties of particles moving at near the speed of light, where their behavior is completely consistent with relativity theory and inconsistent with the earlier Newtonian mechanics.
These machines would simply not work if they were not engineered according to relativistic principles. In addition, a considerable number of modern experiments have been conducted to test special relativity.
Despite the success of the Theory of Special Relativity, there are still detractors who insist on the existence of the aether. The basis for this is the experiment performed by Georges Sagnac that produced the Sagnac effect. However, this effect has been proven to reconcile with Special Relativity. Special relativity can be combined with quantum mechanics to form relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.
It is an unsolved problem in physics how general relativity and quantum mechanics can be unified; quantum gravity and a " theory of everything ", which require a unification including general relativity too, are active and ongoing areas in theoretical research.
The early Bohr—Sommerfeld atomic model explained the fine structure of alkali metal atoms using both special relativity and the preliminary knowledge on quantum mechanics of the time.
In , Paul Dirac constructed an influential relativistic wave equation , now known as the Dirac equation in his honour,  that is fully compatible both with special relativity and with the final version of quantum theory existing after This equation explained not only the intrinsic angular momentum of the electrons called spin , it also led to the prediction of the antiparticle of the electron the positron ,   and fine structure could only be fully explained with special relativity.
It was the first foundation of relativistic quantum mechanics. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, spin is phenomenological and cannot be explained. On the other hand, the existence of antiparticles leads to the conclusion that relativistic quantum mechanics is not enough for a more accurate and complete theory of particle interactions.
Instead, a theory of particles interpreted as quantized fields, called quantum field theory , becomes necessary; in which particles can be created and destroyed throughout space and time. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For history and motivation, see History of special relativity. Simultaneity Relativity of simultaneity Relative motion Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Rest frame Center-of-momentum frame Speed of light Maxwell's equations Lorentz transformation.
Time dilation Gravitational time dilation Relativistic mass Mass—energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas precession Relativistic disk Bell's spaceship paradox Ehrenfest paradox. Minkowski spacetime World line Spacetime diagrams Light cone. Proper time Proper mass Lorentz scalar 4-momentum. Galilean relativity Galilean transformation Aether theories. Alternative formulations of special relativity.
Twin paradox and Relativistic mechanics. Relativity of simultaneity and Ladder paradox. Space travel using constant acceleration. Causality physics and Tachyonic antitelephone. Classical electromagnetism and special relativity and Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism. Tests of special relativity and Criticism of relativity theory. Bridgman, The Scientific Monthly, Vol.
Minkowski, Dover reprint of translation by Methuen and Company. Einstein's relativity, symmetry, and space—time Reprint of ed.
Conversely, the entire content of special relativity Explorations in Mathematical Physics: The Concepts Behind an Elegant Language illustrated ed. Relativity Made Relatively Easy illustrated ed. Introduction to Special Relativity. Special, General, and Cosmological illustrated ed. The Principle of Relativity: Physical Applications of Homogeneous Balls. Progress in Mathematical Physics. Einstein reports, via Dr N Balzas in response to Polanyi's query, that "The Michelson—Morley experiment had no role in the foundation of the theory.
Archive for History of Exact Sciences. The origins of the relativity revolution, Chicago: Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Mathematics Department, University of British Columbia. Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original PDF on 12 April Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 16 April Anton; Pearson, Timothy J.
Superluminal Radio Sources 1st ed. Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside. Physics Lecture Notes. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 20 April Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama.
Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 29 April Introduction to special relativity. An Introduction to Mechanics. Einstein, Annalen der Physik. Concepts of Mass in Classical and Modern Physics. Einstein from B to Z. Einstein, Annalen der Physik 23 What is the meaning of "uniformly accelerated movement"? Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 30 August The Theory of the Relativity of Motion. University of California Press. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics illustrated ed.
Four Decades of Scientific Explanation. The Road to Reality. Misner , Kip S. An Introduction to General Relativity. Formal Structure of Electromagnetics: General Covariance and Electromagnetics. Einstein's general theory of relativity: Sidney Coleman; Sheldon L. Proceedings of the Royal Society. If a car were to go down the street, it might look compressed in the direction of motion, being squeezed like an accordion down to perhaps 1 inch in length.
The Special and General Theory. Theoretical Phenomenology Computational Experimental Applied. Electrostatics Magnetostatics Plasma physics. Atomic physics Molecular physics Optics Photonics Quantum optics. Accelerator Astroparticle Nuclear Quantum chromodynamics.
Quantum electrodynamics Quantum field theory Quantum gravity. Principle of relativity Galilean relativity Galilean transformation Special relativity Doubly special relativity. Time dilation Mass—energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas precession Ladder paradox Twin paradox. Light cone World line Minkowski diagram Biquaternions Minkowski space. Equivalence principle Riemannian geometry Penrose diagram Geodesics Mach's principle.
Black hole Event horizon Singularity Two-body problem Gravitational waves: Brans—Dicke theory Kaluza—Klein Quantum gravity. Tests of special relativity. Michelson—Morley experiment Kennedy—Thorndike experiment Moessbauer rotor experiments Resonator experiments de Sitter double star experiment Hammar experiment Measurements of neutrino speed.
Modern searches for Lorentz violation Hughes—Drever experiment Trouton—Noble experiment Experiments of Rayleigh and Brace Trouton—Rankine experiment Antimatter tests of Lorentz violation Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillations Lorentz-violating electrodynamics. Ives—Stilwell experiment Moessbauer rotor experiments Experimental testing of time dilation Hafele—Keating experiment Length contraction confirmations.
Tests of relativistic energy and momentum Kaufmann—Bucherer—Neumann experiments. Fizeau experiment Sagnac experiment Michelson—Gale—Pearson experiment. Refutations of aether theory Refutations of emission theory.
One-way speed of light Test theories of special relativity Standard-Model Extension. Glossary of tensor theory. Kronecker delta Levi-Civita symbol metric tensor nonmetricity tensor Christoffel symbols Ricci curvature Riemann curvature tensor Weyl tensor torsion tensor.
Principle of relativity Theory of relativity Doubly special relativity de Sitter invariant special relativity General relativity.
Foundations Simultaneity Relativity of simultaneity Relative motion Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Rest frame Center-of-momentum frame Speed of light Maxwell's equations Lorentz transformation. Consequences Time dilation Gravitational time dilation Relativistic mass Mass—energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas precession Relativistic disk Bell's spaceship paradox Ehrenfest paradox. Spacetime Minkowski spacetime World line Spacetime diagrams Light cone.
Dynamics Proper time Proper mass Lorentz scalar 4-momentum.
Einstein's Original Paper on General Relativity. Download. Einstein's Original Paper on General Relativity. Uploaded by. Shahin Iqbal. CONSULTANT DOC. 30 The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity (pp. – in translation volume) Princeton University Press
THE COLLECTED PAPERS OF Albert Einstein VOLUME 6 THE BERLIN YEARS: WRITINGS, – A. J. Kox, Martin J. Klein, and Robert Schulmann EDITORS Alfred Engel, TRANSLATOR Engelbert Schucking, CONSULTANT DOC. 30 The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity (pp. – in translation volume) .
Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, the Original Paper () May 21, in Intellectual Property Preserve, Zero-combustion paradigm by Joseph Robertson Albert Einstein has earned over the course of the last years the reputation as the most revolutionary and visionary scientist in modern history, perhaps of all time. In , the great physicist, Albert Einstein, put forward a new theory called "The Special Theory of Relativity". It is very simple and it says only these two principles 1.
Special relativity is mathematically self-consistent, and it is an organic part of all modern physical theories, most notably quantum field theory, string theory, and general relativity (in the limiting case of negligible gravitational fields). The Theory of Relativity: And Other Essays and millions of other books are available for instant access. Kindle | Audible Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App/5(13).