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Reconstruction Era

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❶African-American History the Reconstruction Era. When President Rutherford B.

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Why was this time in America called the reconstruction era
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As such, the structures ensured that the federal government remained small and limited. The little system of regulations precluded the emergence of the sprawling regulatory state having a cacophony of interest groups that competed, the bureaucrats were unresponsive, the politicians were ambitious, and citizen-clients. In summary, the idealized image of the nineteenth…… [Read More].

Klan politics are eerily being played out in modern conservative movements such as the Tea Party. While the Tea Party does not officially endorse the KKK, the two groups share many common objectives including the mistrust of new immigrants. Today's Klansmen are basically "unhappy about the social politics of America's post-industrial, pluralistic society" and they "feel left out.

The Ku Klux Klan. Working Class Race the Correlation. Each brings the evidence to light by utilizing a different set of sources, one slightly more personal and narrative than the other but both clearly expressive of the expansion of the ideals of America as a "white" masculine society of working class people that needed and obtained voice through ideals that attempted, at least to some degree to skirt the issue of race.

Race was represented in both works as something ardently discussed but that went completely unresolved, as the "white" ideology of representation and power dominated the practicality of the day.

This reader was moved by reading both books, a greater understanding of how many times race was set on the backburner, even when it was something many had to look square in the face hundreds of times in a day is essential to a greater understanding of just how complicated tie issue really was and still is in…… [Read More]. Validity of Data America Considers.

Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth. That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.

But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused. Spanish and American Democracy The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe.

Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the s that are also said to mark the transition as well. The philosophical foundations of the…… [Read More].

Mis-Education of the Negro Carter G. Especially in terms of the role of education in the first half of the twentieth century, aspects of the Black experience that impacted the education of Black people, and what they themselves might want to achieve through an education.

His book The Mis-Education of the Negro addresses such issues in terms of a number of specific dimensions, such as the impact of slavery on the African-American psyche, the degree to which African-Americans had been mis-educated, the need for greater self-reliance among members of the Black population, that Blacks needed to develop their own social order and not imitate the white order, and the meaning of political education in the African-American community.

Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. Oates was a professor African-American and U. His most notable works chronicle the antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction eras of American history. He is particularly well-known for his biographies of the period including his works on Lincoln.

The Fires of Jubilee: Oates offers his historical work as a companion to as well as a rebuttal of some of the existing literature on Turner, including the famous novel by William Styron.

Although an academic, Oates writes in an engaging and popular manner that has made many of his historical works of literature best sellers…… [Read More].

Equal Protection the Supreme Court. The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases 16 Wall. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed.

Discriminations against them had been habitual. Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. Educational Law How Lawful How. Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government.

Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases.

Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws.

The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In and , radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…… [Read More].

The Emancipation Proclamation of granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation African pp. During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in , white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings African pp.

This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century African pp. These salespeople are most frequently seen during the beginning of the college semester and are usually young and attractive and smiling, barely older than the students themselves. Quite often, if a student fills out an application for the credit card, he or she may receive a small toy or a gigantic in exchange for his or her pains.

These smiling individuals prey upon students when they are at their most vulnerable. Most of these students have just had to pay hundreds of dollars for…… [Read More].

Social Justice for African Americans. Martin Luther King Jr. The author of this document proposes to write a paper about the life and works of Martin Luther King Jr. It will specifically evaluate the merits of his integrationist works which he foisted upon the nation in the name of civil rights. This topic satisfies the requirement for this research paper in a number of ways. Firstly, it is predicated on one of the five historic ethnic minority groups that are the focus of the class for which this paper is written.

He labored hard to attain civil rights for this group of people. One of the primary ways that he sought to achieve this objective was through the integration of African-Americans with Caucasians. Secondly, the actions of King Jr. Gang Activity Please See Notes. This becomes further complex as economic ties blur between the poor and middle classes and the expectations each has about the definition of materialistic success.

By belonging to a subculture, however, one can feel part of something larger, insulated a bit from the criticisms and unattainable messages of the upper middle class, and certainly a way to belong and feel important with one's own environment Siegel and Welsh, , Contemporary Urban Issues- in the United States, the National Gang Center estimates that there are almost , active street gang members, most concentrated in Los Angeles County and the greater Chicago area.

Unfortunately, Native American communities are also being overrun by gang violence and drug trafficking. Most tribal communities, in fact, have significant gang activity; contributing also to the continued economic downturn…… [Read More]. Will Rogers -- American Intellect. This, in combination with his slick use of language, and ability to use up-to-date sland and invented words to fit his needs, linked him not only with the cowboy tradition, but speech and mannerism of the American South.

Because of this easy going style -- and ability to cut through the extraneous and find the base truth in the matter at hand, allowed him to move through social classes in all countries, standing for the virtues of a self-made-man, with the obvious respect for capitalism, utilitarianism, and faith in the progression of humans Brown, The standard definition of an intellectual is a person who uses intelligence thought and reason in a critical way to analyze issues and give not just a summation of rote memorization of facts, but of analysis and synthesis.

Was Will ogers an intellectual? How could he not be -- he meets every standard, and then…… [Read More]. Death Penalty Capital punishment is a controversial topic because it involves the taking of a human life as a punishment.

Traditionally, Judeo-Christian and other mainstream religions strictly prohibit killing because they regard the matter of giving and taking of human life as exclusively within the jurisdiction of God and never something that is appropriately executed by the operation of human decisions or judicial determination. In modern times, secular society has recognized several other equally important conceptual objections to relying on capital punishment within the framework of crime control and punishment.

Specifically, there may be good reason to believe that the death penalty has, historically, been applied unequally to offenders of minority communities and to members of society who lack the necessary means to secure their legal rights to their fullest extent by virtue of poverty. Moreover, despite the often-cited proposed justification that the death penalty provides an effective deterrent to…… [Read More].

Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.

The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More].

Reparations Are Americans of African decent entitled to compensation for the American South's slavery past? Does the American government owe people whose ancestors were slaves reparations in the form of money, land or capitol goods? Many African-Americans and white liberals feel that black Americans are owed something and a movement in this country has been stirring for a while agitating for forced reparations by the U. Conyers This paper will argue that reparations for slavery should not occur.

It will be shown why reparations are wrong and how reparations would ultimately cause deeper divisions in our society then already exist. Today there are increasing numbers of black professionals and scholars advocating reparations for slavery. Black lawyers have filed lawsuits against the federal government and companies that have profited from slavery. In , Congressional representative John Conyers introduced H. Changes in Supreme Court Philosophies.

The ehnquist Court A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices often called strict constructionism is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren.

The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…… [Read More]. Women and Gender Bias the. Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance?

And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help? If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view.

Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action. Title VI, section…… [Read More].

Depression or Recession Determining Whether. Third, economic depressions spread from one nation to others whereas economic recessions remain substantially isolated where they first occur and they are eased partially by the strength of national economies elsewhere. Finally, contemporary analyses of economic downturns suggest that distortions to industrial labor markets that keep wages above market-clearing levels are more significant than even bank failures Ohanian, Recommendations and Conclusion It is recommended that public statements on the matter highlight the failure of the opposition to recognize or understand the fundamental nature of economic depressions and the dangers associated with ignoring the important similarities between the economic crisis and the Great Depression.

The current economic crisis shares all of the conceptual hallmarks of an economic depression, including the potential to persist over a longer term and spread globally more than it has already.

In that regard, the key to overcoming the current economic crisis is in supporting…… [Read More]. Starbucks One Does Not Generally. However, the growth of the corporation introduced the concept of a fiduciary duty between stockholders and board members, in both open and closed corporations.

Put succinctly, the board of directors has a duty to its shareholders to increase profits, and majority shareholders may have a duty to the corporation to vote in a way that increases profits.

As a result, business ethics can actually conflict with both corporate social responsibility and global corporate responsibility; because business ethics may indicate a less ethical means of practice if it would increase profits. As a result, many corporations have included responsible practices in their corporate mandate, thereby making it clear to any and all potential stockholders that one of the goals of the company is to engage in responsible and morally ethical behavior.

Starbucks appears to be one such company. Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism and crime rates in general conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.

Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services.

Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.

History of Huey P Long. The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment. This became known as "loody Monday. Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members.

The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed.

Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…… [Read More]. In the Wake of War. War Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century. In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification.

Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress. The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…… [Read More].

Dw Griffith Book Precis Henderson. Griffith trusted the intelligence of his audience. For instance, he showed that splicing two different sequences such as a house on fire and the approaching fire engine together over the course of a film would not confuse an audience. He took his work seriously, and conducted research to film "Birth of a Nation. But Griffith focused only on research that confirmed his racist ideas. His screenplay for "Birth of a Nation" was based upon a novel called The Klansman by an unrepentant pro-Confederate Southerner.

Black leaders protested the film even in its day and the film remains widely credited for causing resurgence in the popularity of the Klu Klux Klan, a Southern Reconstruction-era instrument of hatred. Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. The Political Thought of Abraham Lincoln.

American History at a Glance. References Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. Holt and Company, The Comparative Approach to American History. The Philosophy of American History: Periods in American History. The Arnold-Howard Publishing Co. Works Cited DuBois, W. The negro mind reaches. The meaning of freedom: Era of Reconstruction View Full Essay. Works Cited From Revolution to Reconstruction. Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction June 20, Retrieved September 11, , from http: A Survey, 14th Edition.

Oxford University Press, The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. The Civil Rights Act of History Reconstruction View Full Essay. Works Cited Foner, Eric. Reconstruction of Iraq View Full Essay. Why the UN matters.

The handover in Iraq. The Nile of New England: The Progressive Era Frontier Regional School District. Women and the Progressive Era. University of Maryland -- College Park. Retrieved from the Internet at http: New York Times, A1. The Thirteenth Amendment and the lost origins of civil rights. Duke Law Journal, 50 6 , Racial orders, Congress, and the agricultural welfare state, Studies in American Political Development, 25, Resistance, rebirth, and redemption: Historical Reflections, 35 1 , Railroads Following the Panic.

The Homestead Act of This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11 3 , A history of the American people.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Works Cited Buhle, Paul. The Legacy of the IWW. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Upper Saddle River, NJ The Origins of American Housing Reform. Works Cited Kelly, Martin. Oxford University Press, , History of Black Americans. Women's History View Full Essay. Fellman, Michael et al. The Civil War and its Aftermath 2nd ed. The End of the Civil War. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed.

Works Cited Oshinsky, David. Works Cited Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress. Legacies of the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press, American Elections of View Full Essay. Bibliography Harmon, Mark D. Works Cited Campbell, J. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Harvard University Press, Conflict, Resistance, and Self-Determination.

Norton and Company, New York and London: Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life? New York and Oxford: Conclusion The Mississippi Flood of was a natural disaster not attributable to human error or oversight. Unprecedented rainfall simply overwhelmed the physical barriers provided by the levees that relied on early 20th century technology, materials, and building methods. Ironically, major aspects of the federal government's response to the disaster and the subsequent relief efforts were so efficient that they helped propel their principal architect to the U.

On the other hand, the immediate aftermath of the flood also rekindled intense racial inequalities and showed many African-Americans that the American South was simply not a place where they could ever hope to achieve racial or economic equality. As a result, many southern African-Americans decided to migrate north, more so than at any other time since the end of the American Civil War.

To a great degree, the modern-day demographics of many Northeastern American cities reflect the long-term results of events that were initially caused by the Mississippi Flood of Technology and America as a Consumer Society, Glaeser, Edward, and Goldin, Claudia.

Lessons from America's Economic History. University of Chicago Press, Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, Princeton University Press, Southern Poverty Law Center, Duke University Press, The Ku Klux Klan: A Guide to an American Subculture. Works Cited Ignatiev, Noel. Gratz v Bollinger, No. Spain's Constitution and the nationalities question', National Identities, vol. Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, -- Works Cited Blauner, Bob.

Black Lives, White Lives. University of California Press, The African Slave Trade. Little, Brown and Company, Board of Education of Topeka, U. Civil Rights Act of , 18 Stat.

When is affirmative action fair? Gale Group O'Sullivan, J. The legacy of affirmative action. Bibliography Du Bois, William. The Souls of Black Folk. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Letter from a Birmingham Jail. The National Center for Victims of Crime.

Retrieved January , from Federal Bureau of Investigation: Orgqanized Crime Around the World. Retrieved January , from University of Helsinki: Retrieved December , from the New York Times: Retrieved December , from Will Rogers Website: Will Rogers and His Magic Mirror. Chronicles of Oklahoma, 57 3 , Chronicles of Oklahoma, 58 3 , Equality was a key element that sufficed as a contentious issue within the reconstructive agenda.

The reconstruction narrative is well supported by a number of literal texts with historical facts or themes that augur with the reconstruction agenda. Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas, , is one document that highlights the historical [place of slavery in the reconstruction agenda. It highlights the role religion was used in perpetuating slavery as right.

In this text, Sabbath school was used to indoctrinate the African Americans to believe the cruel punishment was found in the bible. The text foresees the equality of all Americans which was attained after years and notable legislations.

The lamentations show that the journey to the freedom of the African Americans was tasking and full of struggle. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs is another document that identifies with the reconstruction era.

The document details the experiences of women in slavery in the 19th century America. It denotes the depiction of African American slaves as property of the white masters. The author narrates that her contempt for the white Americans was brought forth by the notions that promoted inequality. The exploitation of the female slaves is also dissected highlighting that equality was not only a racial issue but also a gender issue.

Letter to Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, by Benjamin Butler is another text that investigates the effectiveness of the African Americans during the civil war. Butler notes that the African American men and women equally worked hard when called upon. The African Americans were under his protection after fleeing from various areas.

The letter highlights the inquiry by a White American regarding the status of the African Americans within the constitution. It shows the different forces in the reconstruction agenda. The agenda for equality was not only pursued by the African Americans but also by liberal White Americans. Public Law of North Carolina, , Chapter discusses the electoral laws that were stipulated by the North Carolina authorities. The laws are discriminative in that they demand that black Americans seeking registration must be literate.

Voting was also a preserve of those that had cleared poll tax. It also specified that only the male gender was allowed to participate in the electoral process. Additionally, no black male person born past was allowed to vote.

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Reconstruction was a success in that it restored the United States as a unified nation: by , all of the former Confederate states had drafted new constitutions, acknowledged the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, and pledged their loyalty to the U.S. government. Reconstruction Essay essays Reconstruction was the period of 'repair' after the civil war. It was to repair the North and South, politically, socially, and economically. It was also to rejoin the South back into the union, as it had succeeded during the civil war.

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Nov 26,  · Characteristics and Impacts of American Reconstruction Essay Words | 7 Pages Characteristics and Impacts of American Reconstruction The key goals of Reconstruction were to readmit the South into the Union and to define the status of freedmen in American society. Reconstruction Essay Words | 4 Pages Reconstruction was the time between and when the U.S. focused on abolishing slavery, destroying the Confederacy, and reconstructing the nation and the Constitution and is also the general history of the post-Civil War era in the U.S. between and